top of page
  • Writer's pictureRobin Syversen


Updated: May 9

Shunji Iwai's Ambitious Cult Classic Made Japanese Film History!

Director: Shunji Iwai

Cast: Ayumi Itô, Hiroshi Mikami, Chara, Yôsuke Eguchi, Andy Hui Chi-On, Atsurô Watabe

Related films: Love Letter, All About Lily Chou-Chou, Hana and Alice, Dead or Alive

Studio: Rockwell Eyes Inc.

Year: 1996

Verdict: 5/6


The Swallowtail Kaleidoscope of Confusion

Subjectively speaking, Swallowtail Butterfly had to be re-watched a few times to be fully appreciated. The film is set in the near future, in a time when Japanese, Chinese, and English languages have developed into several creolizations. This excuses the terrible pronunciation to a certain extent, but not the stale acting.

The first time around, it was hard to overlook the fact that the Japanese actors spoke large parts of their dialogue in broken English. As such, all «English» dialogue made for unconvincing performances, which naturally disrupted the sense of realism.

«I wanted to depict the immigrants as human beings. I was told that I made their lives seem too happy, but I admired their underlying strength more than I did that of the Japanese, who seemed to have lost theirs.»

Shunji Iwai - Tokyo International Film Festival

That said, when re-watching the film for the second and third time - being able to put the language issues aside and focus on Iwai’s bigger picture - a wonderfully heartfelt story seeped through the cracks.

As if the intricate language design weren’t enough, the atmosphere, settings, ensemble cast, costumes, and script are like nothing you have ever seen. Swallowtail Butterfly is hailed by many as the director’s finest moment. It is definitely his most ambitious and probably also his best.

Behind the Scenes of Swallowtail Butterfly

Iwai has proven proficient in directing both traditional melodramas and experimental films. Swallowtail Butterfly leans towards experimental filmmaking, but a strong melodrama is hidden beneath its scruffy exterior.

As usual, Iwai’s cinematography and sound design are all over the place, which is to say, an eclectic mix of handheld camera work and a bold score. To top it off, the film sports one of the biggest international casts ever seen in any Japanese film.

On more than a few occasions, Swallowtail Butterfly has been described as equally significant to Japanese filmmaking as Pulp Fiction was to Hollywood cinema.

Daniel Eagan at Film Comment described the film as a mix of guerrilla-style shooting, fake-music videos, MTV-pastiche, and jump-cuts between nightclubs, shoot-outs, and urchins falling in love. He then went on to argue that Iwai’s next film - All About Lily Chou-Chou (2001) - was a more successful blend of film and popular culture. I find it hard to decide...

Iwai’s experimental films always had a tendency to put form before content, resulting in strong stories being disrupted by artsy style and design. I would argue that this is not the case with Swallowtail Butterfly. Yes, Iwai is more experimental than ever, and yes, I had to see the film three times, but in the end, the style and story melted together in perfect symbiosis.

Swallowtail Butterfly Analysis

The innovative style is but one thing that makes this film so special. The story and character development are profoundly deep and open up countless angles of interpretation and analysis. The multicultural shantytown's postmodern, dystopian landscape reeks of sociopolitical undertones.

The cultural hodgepodge in Swallowtail Butterfly is almost comical to behold when remembering how Japan shut down its borders entirely to the outside world in the 1600s. For 200 years, the Japanese foreign policy was broken bonds on all fronts.

Yen Town is the complete opposite and showcases culture and people as diversified as can be. The artistic nature of the film does, of course, contribute to the outlandish atmosphere, but between the lines, one cannot help but consider Japan's foreign relations.

Today, there are large amounts of Chinese immigrants in Japan. However, the treatment of Chinese people in Swallowtail Butterfly seems more in line with the differential treatment of the wave of Korean immigrants that flowed into Japan in the eighties.

Even though there do not appear to be any Korean residents in Swallowtail’s Yen Town, there seem to be quite a few parallels to the Zainichi (slang for Koreans in Japan) issues that Japan has been struggling with since the 1980s.

Iwai himself hasn't vocalized much about such interpretations in the media, at least not that I could find. He did, however, express admiration for the strength he saw in immigrants in Japan, a strength that seemed lost to him in his fellow countrymen.

The Story of Ageha - Swallowtail Butterfly Synopsis

As unique in style and political undertones as the film might be, the main attraction is still the gripping story and the character chemistry. Ageha's story is the center of attention. She is a young girl whose mother one day turns up dead. As a result, she is sold as a commodity to a shantytown streetwalker.

The prostitute takes any valuables she can find and leaves Ageha with another young prostitute. From there on, we witness Agehae growing up and proving stronger than anyone could have predicted.

The lowly community might seem filthy and opportunistic, but the characters prove to be multifaceted and often not as cynical as we are first led to believe. Granted, many of Yen Town’s citizens spend most of their days concocting schemes to lure cash out of innocent office workers. On the other hand, the hoodlums never hurt anyone and are simply trying to get by with the hand they are dealt in life.

Due to the free flow of opium, the intrigues are tightened when the Triads (Chinese mafia) suddenly invade the lives of the shantytown population. Amid this intrusion, a high-ranking triad mobster abuses Ageha’s matron sister (Glico) and ends up dead (by accident) in the process.

By chance, Glico’s boyfriend discovers a tape on the dead yakuza, a tape that holds the key to forging counterfeit Yen notes. This brings the attention of all kinds of questionable characters—not the ideal situation for two young girls, indeed. As the plot thickens, the characters continue to grow.

Final Verdict: Swallowtail Butterfly Review

Swallowtail Butterfly is built on a heap of layers that can easily be discussed and analyzed at length for pages up and down. To reiterate, the film is unlike anything you have ever seen, for better or for worse.

If taken for what it is, you will get an extraordinary experience that will stay with you long after the end credits roll. Give it time, let it set, and the characters, their lives, and the fantastic journey they go through will drag you in.

Swallowtail is an art-house film, for sure, but it's got indefinite depth, a one-of-a-kind design, and a character ensemble for the books. It goes without saying that it has earned its underground reputation and the JCA stamp of approval.


Film Comment: Interview: Shunji Iwai

Lori Hitchcock, Indiana University, USA: ... language and multiculturalism in Swallowtail ...

Midnight Eye: Swallowtail Butterfly

Tokyo International Film Festival: Swallowtail Butterfly Q&A

Unfortunately, there simply are no decent releases of Swallowtail Butterfly. Several DVD and Blu-ray versions can be found online, but be advised: These vary greatly in quality, some are without subtitles, and keep regions in mind. eBay or YesAsia are probably your best bets.

973 views0 comments

Recent Posts

See All


bottom of page